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In education, the term assessment traditionally conjures the thought of a final exam. However, it can also be applied to other assignment activities such as a discussion board or performance-based assignments (aka authentic assessment). In each instance though, the assessment is thoughtfully prepared to measure specific student learning objectives. Linked below is more detail on each of these topics (with special consideration given to assessments in online courses) as well as some general references.

General Assessment References

  • Assessment Tools
  • Cornell’s Test Construction Manual has information on planning, preparing, and analyzing/revising tests. It covers the basic principles of test construction and provides examples.
  • Kelly, R. et al. (n.d.). Assessing Online learning: Strategies, Challenges and Opportunities. Faculty Focus Special Report. Magna Publications, Inc. Retrieved from
  • Nicol, D. J., & Macfarlane‐Dick, D. (2006). Formative assessment and self‐regulated learning: A model and seven principles of good feedback practice. Studies in Higher Education, 31(2): 199-218. DOI: 10.1080/03075070600572090
    • Uses peer-reviewed literature, including a 1998 meta-analysis, to formulate and discuss 7 good feedback practices aimed at helping students know what good performance is, how their current performance relates, and what steps are needed to close the gap.
  • Angelo, T. A., & Cross, K. P. (1993). Classroom assessment techniques: A handbook for college teachers, (2nd ed.). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass Publishers.
    • Widely known for their overview of 50 techniques plus case studies, this is a great reference book for brain-storming ways the elements discussed could be applied to the online environment.




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