Public Affairs


A. When in doubt, spell the word out.

B. Abbreviate

  1. Page to p. and pages to pp. in footnotes or bibliographical material; spell out when used in text material (page, not Page).
  2. Eastern Daylight Time as EDT, without periods
  3. Use the ampersand (&) in proper names of colleges, departments, offices, etc. on letterhead stationery items; in corporate titles; or if space demands it in course abbreviations and tabular material. Otherwise, use and.
    • The ampersand is not used in University wordmarks.
  4. Complimentary titles, such as Mr., Mrs. and Dr.; do not use them in combination with any other title or with abbreviations indicating scholastic or academic degrees
    • Doris R. Helms, Ph.D.; not Dr. Doris R. Helms, Ph.D.
    • Larry S. Bowman, M.D.; not Dr. Larry S. Bowman, M.D.
  5. Academic degrees.
    • Bachelor of Arts, B.A.
    • Bachelor of Fine Arts, B.F.A.
    • Bachelor of Landscape Architecture, B.L.A.
    • Bachelor of Science, B.S.
    • Master of Agricultural Education, M.Ag.Ed.
    • Master of Arts, M.A.
    • Master of Architecture, M.Arch.
    • Master of Arts in Teaching, M.A.T.
    • Master of Business Administration, MBA
    • Master of City and Regional Planning, M.C.R.P.
    • Master of Construction Science and Management, M.C.S.M.
    • Master of Education, M.Ed.
    • Master of Engineering, M.Engr.
    • Master of Fine Arts, M.F.A.
    • Master of Forest Resources, M.F.R.
    • Master of Human Resource Development, M.H.R.D.
    • Master of Landscape Architecture, M.L.A.
    • Master of Parks, Recreation and Tourism Management, M.P.R.T.M.
    • Master of Professional Accountancy, M.P.Acc.
    • Master of Public Administration, M.P.A.
    • Master of Real Estate Development, M.R.E.D.
    • Master of Science, M.S.
    • Doctor of Education, Ed.D.
    • Doctor of Philosophy, Ph.D.
    • Educational Specialist, Ed.S.
  6. Use GPR or GPA in caps without periods.
  7. When it is necessary to use a subject-matter designation and course number to identify a specific course, e.g., ENGL 101 Composition, use the official course code.
  8. When names of universities, government agencies or other organizations are abbreviated as acronyms (first letter of each word), use full caps and periods according to listing in AP Stylebook. For words not in AP, consult Webster’s. For all others, use capital letters and no periods.
    • ABC, CIA, FBI
  9. Use a.m. and p.m. with periods and lowercase letters. In tabular matter, the periods may be omitted to save space.
  10. U.S. is acceptable as a noun or adjective for United States.
  11. Use the abbreviations Ave., Blvd. and St. only with a numbered address.
  12. Abbreviate these months when they are used with a specific date: Jan., Feb., Aug., Sept., Oct., Nov., Dec.
  13. FY may be used as an abbreviation for Fiscal Year. Insert a space between FY and the year, e.g., FY 2003.

C. Do Not Abbreviate

  1. Names of countries other than USA.
  2. Given names, such as George, William and Charles.
  3. In lists or bibliographies, use traditional state abbreviations, not postal abbreviations, e.g., Boston, Mass., not Boston, MA. In other text, abbreviate the name of the state when it is used with a city, except Alaska, Hawaii, Idaho, Iowa, Maine, Ohio, Texas and Utah. Spell out the state’s name when it is used alone. Use the two-letter postal abbreviation with a ZIP code only in full addresses.
  4. The words association, avenue, boulevard, department, institute, street, etc.
  5. Spell out March, April, May, June and July in all references.
  6. Christmas in the form of Xmas.
  7. The name of an organization the first time it is used; spell out and put the acronym in parentheses. If the term appears only once, do not add the acronym.
    • American Institute of Architects (AIA); thereafter, AIA.
  8. The word percent: In general spell out the word percent (one word) and use figures.
    • Of this year’s student enrollment, 52 percent are men and 48 percent are women.
  9. Parts of geographic names, except Saint in St. Louis, St. Paul, etc., unless they are used in tabular matter.
    • Fort Wayne, North Dakota
  10. Assistant and associate when used in a title.
    • assistant professor of microbiology
  11. Names of buildings in running text.
    • Room 109 Alumni Center , not 109 AC

Note: Abbreviations may be used more freely in tabular matter.

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