ACIP Recommended/UF Required FDA-Licensed VaccinesVaccine Recommendations
ACIP recommends vaccination for the following.Veterinarians and other persons considered to be at high risk for anthrax exposure if they handle potentially infected animals in research settings.
Laboratory personnel at risk for repeated exposure to fully virulent B. anthracis spores such as those who:
- Work with high concentrations of spores with potential for aerosol generation;
- Handle environmental samples that might contain powders and are associated with anthrax investigations;
- Routinely work with pure cultures of B. anthracis;
- Frequently work in spore-contaminated areas after a bioterrorism attack; or
- Work in other settings where repeated exposures to B. anthracis aerosols exist.
Pre-event vaccination is not recommended for emergency response personnel; voluntary pre-event vaccination can be offered to responder units engaged in response activities that may lead to exposure to aerosolized B. anthracis spores.Hepatitis A ACIP recommends vaccination for persons who work with Hepatitis A virus (HAV)-infected primates or with HAV in a research laboratory setting.
Japanese Encephalitis ACIP recommends vaccination for laboratory workers with a potential for exposure to infectious Japanese Encephalitis virus (JEV).
Meningiococcal ACIP recommends vaccination with a single dose of MenACWY for microbiologists routinely exposed to isolates of N. meningitides. A booster dose should be administered every 5 years if exposure is ongoing.
Polio ACIP recommends that unvaccinated adults who are at increased risk (including laboratory workers who handle specimens that might contain poliovirus) should receive a primary vaccination series with IPV. Two doses of IPV should be administered at intervals of 4-8 weeks; a third dose should be administered 6-12 months after the second dose. If the recommended time schedule cannot be achieved before protection is needed, contracted dosing schedules can be considered ( Dosing Schedules and Immunogenicity Criteria for Required Licensed Vaccines).
Rabies Pre-exposure vaccination is recommended by ACIP for persons in high risk groups, such as veterinarians and their staff, animal handlers, rabies researchers and certain laboratory workers and should also be considered for persons whose activities bring them into frequent contact with rabies virus or potentially rabid bats, raccoons, skunks, cats, dogs or other species at risk for having rabies. The frequency of serum sample testing is dependent on risk ( Dosing Schedules and Immunogenicity Criteria for Required Licensed Vaccines).
Smallpox (Vaccinia) ACIP recommends vaccination for laboratory workers who directly handle a) cultures or b) animals contaminated or infected with, non-highly attenuated vaccinia virus, recombinant vaccinia viruses derived from non-highly attenuated vaccinia strains, or other Orthopoxviruses that infect humans (e.g., monkeypox, cowpox, vaccinia and variola); these individuals should be re-vaccinated at least every 10 years. To ensure an increased level of protection against more virulent nonvariola Orthopoxviruses (e.g., monkeypox), empiric re-vaccination every 3 years may be considered.Vaccination is not recommended for persons who do not directly handle non-highly attenuated virus cultures or materials or who do not work with animals contaminated or infected with these viruses.
Typhoid ACIP recommends vaccination for microbiology laboratory personnel who work frequently with S. typhi.
Yellow Fever ACIP recommends vaccination for laboratory personnel who might be exposed to virulent Yellow Fever virus (YFV) or to concentrated preparations of YF vaccine virus strains by direct or indirect contact or by aerosols.
Tetanus* The National Research Council (NRC), in the “ Occupational Health and Safety in the Care and Use of Research Animals” and the Association for Assessment and Accreditation of Laboratory Animal Care International recommend a tetanus vaccine/booster within the last 10 years for all personnel with animal contact.
Vaccine Federal Regulations
Per NIH Guidelines for work with Risk Group 3 (RG 3) Influenza viruses (including the 1918-1919 H1N1 (1918 H1N1), human H2N2 (1957-1968), and highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 strains within the Goose/Guangdong/96-like H5 lineage) :
- Unless there is a medical contraindication to vaccination (e.g. severe egg allergy) annual seasonal influenza vaccination shall be a pre-requisite for research to reduce risk of influenza-like illness that would require isolation and testing to rule out infection with experimental viruses and raise the risk for possible co-infection with circulating influenza strains.
- Virus specific vaccination, if available, should be offered and if a licensed HPAI H5N1 vaccine is available, and there are no medical contraindications, laboratory workers performing research with mammalian-transmissible HPAI H5N1 virus should be vaccinated.
Per the CDC’s Interim Risk Assessment and Biosafety Level Recommendations for Working with Influenza A (H7N9) Viruses, unless an absolute medical contraindication exists, all personnel working with influenza A (H7N9) are required to receive the current seasonal influenza vaccine. Immunization with seasonal influenza vaccine may reduce the chance of the possible re-assortment of human influenza viruses with avian influenza viruses, which could result in a virus that more easily infects humans.
*The tetanus vaccine may be recommended for work with tetanus toxin and/or toxin-producing strains of Clostridium tetani ( see FDA-Licensed Vaccines That May be Recommended Based on Risk Assessment).
** The Influenza vaccine may be recommended for work with circulating human influenza strains (e.g., H1/H3/B) and low pathogenicity avian influenza (LPAI) strains (e.g., H1-4, H6, H8-16), and equine and swine influenza viruses and other RG2 influenza viruses worked with at the BSL-2/ABSL-2 level ( see FDA-Licensed Vaccines That May be Recommended Based on Risk Assessment.)
Original February 17, 2014