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Publications

The lab is dedicated to understanding and improving self-regulated learning (SRL). Emphasis is placed on how metacognition, most notably, monitoring and control, and how it contributes to learning across the life span. Below, research publications are organized by the component of SRL that is most focal to each article. *Denotes student author.

IMAGE: Metacognition IMAGE: Handbook of Metamemory and Memory

Dunlosky, J., Rawson, K. A., Marsh, E. J., Nathan, M. J., & Willingham, D. T. (2013). Improving students' learning with effective learning techniques: Promising directions from cognitive and educational psychology. Psychological Science in the Public Interest, 14, 4-58.

Bjork, R. A., Dunlosky, J., & Kornell, N. (2013). Self-regulated learning: Beliefs, techniques, and illusions. Annual Review of Psychology, 64, 417-444.

◄◄◄◄  MONITORING  ►►►►

Memory

Judgments of Learning and Other Metacog Judgments

… Basic research

*Hartwig, M., & Dunlosky, J. (in press). The Contribution of judgment scale to the unskilled-and-unaware phenomenon: How evaluating others can exaggerate over-(and under-)confidence. Memory & Cognition.

Hertzog, C., Fulton, E. K., Sinclair, S. M., & Dunlosky, J. (in press). Recalled aspects of original encoding strategies influence episodic feeling of knowing. Memory and Cognition.

*Mueller, M. L., Tauber, S. K., & Dunlosky, J. (2013). Contributions of beliefs and processing fluency to the effect of relatedness on judgments of learning. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 20, 378-384.

Ariel, R. & Dunlosky, J. (2011). The sensitivity of judgment-of-learning resolution to past test performance, new learning, and forgetting. Memory & Cognition, 39, 171-184.

Walheim, C.N., Dunlosky, J., & Jacoby, L.(2011). Spacing enhances the learning of natural concepts: An investigation of mechanisms, metacogniton, and aging. Memory & Cognition, 39(5), 750-63.

*Ariel, R. & Dunlosky, J. (2011). The sensitivity of judgment-of-learning resolution to past test performance, new learning, and forgetting. Memory & Cognition, 39(1), 171-84.

*Matvey, G., Dunlosky, J., & Schwartz, B. (2006).  The effects of categorical relatedness on judgments of learning (JOLs).  Memory, 14, 253-261. pdf

*Serra, M. J. & Dunlosky, J. (2005).  Does retrieval fluency contribute to the underconfidence-with-practice effect?  Journal of Experimental Psychology:  Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 31, 1258-1266. pdf

Dunlosky, J., *Serra, M. J., *Matvey, G., & Rawson, K. A. (2005).  Second-order judgments about judgments of learning. (Special Issue) Journal of General Psychology, 132, 335-346.

Nelson, T. O., Narens, L., & Dunlosky, J. (2004).  A revised methodology for research on metamemory:  Pre-judgment recall and monitoring (PRAM).  Psychological Methods, 9, 53-69. pdf

Hertzog, C., Dunlosky, J.,  Robinson, A. E., & Kidder, D. P. (2003).  Encoding fluency is a cue used for judgments about learning. Journal of Experimental Psychology:  Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 29, 22-34. pdf

*Matvey, G., Dunlosky, J., & Guttentag, R. (2001).  Fluency of retrieval at study affects judgments of learning (JOLs):  An anlaytic or nonanalytic basis for JOLs?   Memory & Cognition, 29, 222-232. pdf

Dunlosky, J., & *Matvey, G. (2001).  Empirical analysis of the intrinsic-extrinsic distinction of judgments of learning (JOLs):  Effects of relatedness and serial position on JOLs.  Journal of Experimental Psychology:  Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 27, 1180-1191. pdf

Dunlosky, J., Hunt, R. R., & *Clark, E. (2000).  Is perceptual salience necessary in explanations of the isolation effect?  Journal of Experimental Psychology:  Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 26, 649-657. pdf

Dunlosky, J., & Nelson, T. O.  (1997).  Similarity between the cue for judgments of learning (JOL) and the cue for test is not the primary determinant of JOL accuracy.  Journal of Memory and Language, 36, 34-49. pdf

Dunlosky, J., & Nelson, T. O.  (1994).  Does the sensitivity of judgments of learning (JOLs) to the effects of various study activities depend on when the JOLs occur?  Journal of Memory and Language, 33, 545-565. pdf

Thiede, K. W., & Dunlosky, J.  (1994).  Delaying students' metacognitive monitoring improves their accuracy at predicting their recognition performance, Journal of Educational Psychology, 2, 290-302. pdf

Nelson, T. O., & Dunlosky, J.  (1992).  How shall we explain the delayed-judgment-of-learning effect?  Psychological Science, 3, 317-318.

Dunlosky, J., & Nelson, T. O.  (1992).  Importance of the kind of cue for judgments of learning (JOL) and the delayed-JOL effect.  Memory & Cognition, 20, 373-380.

… Cognitive Aging and Other Special Populations

*Lipowski, S., Merriman, W., & Dunlosky, J. (in press). Preschoolers can make highly accurate judgments of learning. Developmental Psychology.

Hertzog, C., Fulton, E. K., Mandivwala, L., & Dunlosky, J. (2013). Older adults show deficits in retrieving and decoding associative mediators generated at study. Developmental Psychology, 49, 1127-1131.

Tauber, S. K. & Dunlosky, J. (2012). Can older adults accurately judge their learning of emotional information? Psychology and Aging, 27, 924-933.

Lipko, A. R., Dunlosky, J., Lipowski, S., & Merriman, W. (2012). Young children are not underconfident with practice: The benefit of ignoring a fallible memory heuristic. Journal of Cognition and Development, 13, 174-188.

Hertzog, C. & Dunlosky, J. (2011). Metacognition in later adulthood: Spared monitoring can benefit older adults' self-regulation. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 20, 174-180.

Hertzog, C., Sinclar, S. M., & Dunlosky, J. (2010).  Age differences in the monitoring of learning:  Cross-sectional evidence of spared resolution across the life-span. Developmental Psychology. 46(4), 939-48. pdf

Hertzog, C., Dunlosky, J., & Sinclair, S. M. (2010).  Episodic feeling-of-knowing resolution derives from the quality of encoding.  Memory & Cognition. 38(6), 771-84.

*Lipko, A. R., Dunlosky, J., & Merriman, W. E. (2008). Persistent overconfidence despite practice: The role of task experience in preschollers' recall predictions. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology. .pdf

*Serra, M. J., Dunlosky, J., & Hertzog, C. (2008). Do older adults show less confidence in their monitoring of learning? Experimental Aging Research, 34, 379-391.

Robinson, A. E., Hertzog, C., & Dunlosky, J. (2006).  Aging, encoding fluency, and metacognitive monitoring. Aging, Neuropsychology, and Cognition, 13, 458-478.

*Knouse, L., Paradise, M., & Dunlosky, J. (2006).  Does ADHD in adults affect the relative accuracy of metamemory judgments?  Journal of Attention Disorders, 10, 160-170. pdf

Hertzog, C., Kidder, D., Powell-Moman, A., & Dunlosky, J.  (2002).  Aging and monitoring associative learning: Is monitoring accuracy spared or impaired?  Psychology & Aging, 17, 209-225. pdf

Connor, L., Dunlosky, J., & Hertzog, C. (1997).  Age-related differences in absolute but not relative metamemory accuracy.  Psychology and Aging, 12, 50-71. pdf

Knowledge Updating (Multi-trial Studies with Judgments of Learning)

Hertzog, C., Price, J., Burpee, A., Frentzel, W. J., Feldstein, S., & Dunlosky, J. (2009).  Why do people show minimal knowledge updating with task experience:  Inferential deficit or experimental artifact?  Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology. .pdf

Hertzog, C., Price, J., & Dunlosky, J. (2008). How is knowledge generated about memory encoding strategy effectiveness?  Learning and Individual Differences, 18, 430-455. . pdf

Price, J., Hertzog, C., & Dunlosky, J. (2008). Age-related differences in straetgy knowledge updating: Blocked testing produces greater improvements in metacognitive accuracy for younger than older adults. Aging, Neuropsychology, and Cognition, 15, 601-626. .pdf

*Matvey, G., Dunlosky, J., Shaw, R. J., Parks, C., & Hertzog, C.  (2002).  Age-related equivalence and deficit in knowledge updating of cue effectiveness.  Psychology & Aging, 17, 589-597. pdf

Dunlosky, J., & Hertzog, C. (2000).  Updating knowledge about strategy effectiveness: A componential analysis of learning about strategy effectiveness from task experience.  Psychology & Aging, 15, 462-474. pdf

Text Comprehension and Learning

Dunlosky, J., *Hartwig, M., Rawson, K. A., & Lipko, A. R. (2011). Improving college students' evaluation of text learning using idea-unit standards. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 64, 467-484.

*Serra, M., & Dunlosky, J. (2010). Metacomprehension judgments reflect the belief that diagrams improve learning from text. Memory, 18, 698-711.( pdf)

*Baker, J. M. C., Dunlosky, J., & Hertzog, C. (2010).  How accurately can older adults evaluate the quality of their text recall?  The effect of providing standards on judgment accuracy.  Applied Cognitive Psychology, 24, 134-147.

*Lipko, A. R., Dunlosky, J., *Hartwig, M. K., Rawson, K. A., Swan, K., & Cook, D. (2009).  Using standards to improve middle-school students’ accuracy at evaluating the quality of their recall.  Journal of Experimental Psychology:  Applied, 15, 307-318. pdf

Dunlosky, J., & *Lipko, A. (2007).  Metacomprehension:  A brief history and how to improve its accuracy.  Current Directions in Psychological Science, 16, 228-232. pdf

Rawson, K., & Dunlosky, J. (2007). Improving students' self-evaluation of learning for key concepts in textbook materials. European Journal of Cognitive Psychology, 19, 559-579. pdf

*Baker, J., & Dunlosky, J. (2006).  Does Momentary Accessibility Influence Metacomprehension Judgments?  The Influence of Study-Judgment Lags on Accessibility Effects.  Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 13, 60-65. pdf

Dunlosky, J., *Baker, J., Rawson, K., & Hertzog, C. (2006).  Does aging influence people’s metacomprehension? Effects of processing ease on judgments of text learning. Psychology & Aging, 21, 390-400. pdf

Thiede, K. W., Dunlosky, J., Griffin, T., & Wiley, J. (2005).  Understanding the Delayed-Keyword Effect on Metacomprehension Accuracy.  Journal of Experimental Psychology:  Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 31, 1267-1280. pdf

Dunlosky, J., & Rawson, K. A. (2005). Why does rereading improve metacomprehension accuracy? Evaluating the levels-of-disruption hypothesis for the rereading effect.  Discourse Processes, 40, 37-55. pdf

Dunlosky, J., Rawson, K. A., & *Middleton, E. (2005).  What constrains the accuracy of metacomprehension judgments? Testing the transfer-appropriate-monitoring and accessibility hypotheses.  Journal of Memory and Language, 52, 551-565. pdf

Rawson, K. A., & Dunlosky, J.  (2002).  Are performance predictions for text based on ease of processing?  Journal of Experimental Psychology:  Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 28, 69-80. pdf

Rawson, K., Dunlosky, J., & *McDonald, S.  (2002).  Influences of metamemory on performance predictions for text.  Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 55A, 505-524. pdf

Rawson, K. A., Dunlosky, J., & Thiede, K. W. (2000).  The rereading effect:  Metacomprehension accuracy improves across reading trials.  Memory & Cognition, 28, 1004-1010. pdf

Dunlosky, J., Rawson, K., & *McDonald, S. (2002).  Influence of practice tests on the accuracy of predicting memory performance for paired associates, sentences, and text material.  In T. Perfect & B. Schwartz (Eds.) Applied Metacognition.  (pp. 68-92). Cambridge, UK:  Cambridge University Press.

Dunlosky, J., Rawson, K., & Hacker, D. (2002).  Metacomprehension of science text:  Investigating the levels-of-disruption hypothesis.  In J. Otero & A. Graesser (Eds.) The Psychology of Science Text Comprehension.  (pp. 255-280).  Hillsdale, NJ:  LEA.

◄◄◄◄  CONTROL  ►►►►

Regulation of Learning

*Ariel, R., Dunlosky, J., & Toppino, T. C. (in press). Contribution of degraded perception and insufficient encoding to decisions to mass or space study. Experimental Psychology.

*Ariel, R. & Dunlosky, J. (2013). When do learners shift from habitual to agenda-based processes when selecting items for study? Memory & Cognition, 41, 416-428.

Tauber, S. K., Dunlosky, J., Rawson, K. A., Wahlheim, C. N., & Jacoby, L. (2013). Self-regulated learning of a natural category: Do people interleave or block exemplars during study? Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 20, 356-363.

Bjork, R. A., Dunlosky, J., & Kornell, N. (2013). Self-regulated learning: Beliefs, techniques, and illusions. Annual Review of Psychology, 64, 417-444.

Knouse, L. E., Anastopoulos, A. D., & Dunlosky, J. (2012). Isolating metamemory deficits in the self-regulated learning of adults with AD/HD. Journal of Attention Disorders, 16, 650-660.

Dunlosky, J. & Rawson, K. A. (2012). Overconfidence produces underachievement: Inaccurate self evaluations undermine students' learning and retention. Learning and Instruction, 22, 271-280.

Rawson, K. A., O'Neil, R., & Dunlosky, J. (2011). Accurate monitoring leads to effective control and greater learning of patient education materials. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied, 17, 288-302.

Ariel, R., Al-Harthy, I. S., Was, C. A., Dunlosky, J. (2011). Habitual reading biases in the allocation of study time. Psychomic Bulletin & Review, 18, 1015-1021.

Dunlosky, J. & Ariel, R. (2011). The influence of agenda-based and habitual processes on item selection during study. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 37, 899-912.

Wahlheim, C. N., Dunlosky, J., & Jacoby, L. L. (2011). Spacing enhances the learning of natural concepts: An investigation of mechanisms, metacognition, and aging. Memory & Cognition, 39, 750-763.

Dunlosky, J & Ariel, R. (2011). Self-regulated learning and the allocation of study time. To appear in B. Ross (Ed), Pscychology of Learning and Motivation, 54, 103-140. pdf.

*Pyc, M. A., & Dunlosky, J. (2010).  Toward an understanding of students’ allocation of study time:  Why do they decide to mass or space their practice?  Memory & Cognition. pdf.

Price, J., Hertzog, C., & Dunlosky, J. (in press).  Self-regulated learning in younger and older adults:  Does aging affect metacognitive control?  Aging, Neuropsychology and Cognition.

*Ariel, R., Dunlosky, J., & *Bailey, H. (2009). Agenda-based regulation of study-time allocation: When agendas override item-based monitoring. Journal of Experimental Psycholog: General. pdf.

Dunlosky, J., Hertzog, C., Kennedy, M., & Thiede, K. (2005).  The self-monitoring approach for effective learning.  Cognitive Technology, 10, 4-11. 

Dunlosky, J., & Thiede, K. W. (2004). Causes and Constraints of the shift-to-easier-materials effect in the control of study.  Memory & Cognition, 32, 779-788. pdf

Thiede, K. T., & Dunlosky, J.  (1999).  Toward a General Model of Self-regulated Study:  An Analysis of Selection of Items for Study and Self-paced Study Time.  Journal of Experimental Psychology:  Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 24, 1024-1037. pdf

Dunlosky, J. & Thiede, K. W.  (1998)  What makes people study more?  An evaluation of factors that affect people’s self-paced study and yield “labor-and-gain” effects.  Acta Psychologica, 98, 37-56. pdf

Dunlosky, J., & Hertzog, C.  (1997).  Older and younger adults use a functionally identical algorithm to select items for restudy during multi-trial learning.  Journal of Gerontology:  Psychological Sciences, 52B, 178-186.

Dunlosky, J., & Connor, L.  (1997). Age-related differences in the allocation of study time account for age-related differences in memory performance.  Memory & Cognition, 25, 691-700. pdf

Nelson, T. O., Dunlosky, J., Graf, A., & Narens, L. (1994). Utilization of metacognitve judgments in the allocation of study during multitrial learning. Psychological Science, 5, 207-213.

Strategy Use

Enhancing Student Learning

Lipowski, S., Pyc, M., Dunlosky, J., & Rawson, K. A. (in press). Establishing and explaining the testing effect in free recall for young children. Developmental Psychology.

Rawson, K. A., Dunlosky, J., & Sciartelli, S. M. (in press). The power of successive relearning: Improving performance on course exams and long-term retention. Educational Psychology Review.

Rawson, K. A. & Dunlosky, J. (in press). Relearning attenuates the benefits and costs of spacing. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General.

Dunlosky, J. & Thiede, K. W. (2013). Four cornerstones of calibration research: Why understanding students' judgments can improve their achievement. Learning and Instruction, 24, 58-61.

Rawson, K. A. & Dunlosky, J. (2012). When is practice testing most effective for improving the durability and efficiency of student learning? Educational Psychology Review, 24, 419-435.

Hartwig, M., Was, C., Isaacson, R., & Dunlosky, J. (2012). General knowledge monitoring as a predictor of in-class exam performance. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 82, 456-458.

Hartwig, M. & Dunlosky, J. (2012). Study strategies of college students: Are self-testing and scheduling related to achievement? Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 19, 126-134.

Hertzog, C., Price, J., & Dunlosky, J. (2012). Age differences in the effects of experimenter-instructed versus self-generated strategy use. Experimental Aging Research, 38, 42-62.

Rawson, K. A., & Dunlosky, J. (2011). Optimizing schedules of retrieval practice for durable and efficient learning: How much is enough? Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 140, 283-302.

Memory and Cognitive Aging

*Bottoroli, S., Cavallini, E., Dunlosky, J., Vecchi, T., & Hertzog, C. (in press). The importance of training strategy adaptation: A learner-oriented approach for improving older adults' memory and transfer. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied.

Hertzog, C. & Dunlosky, J. (2012). Metacognitive approaches can promote transfer of training: Comment on McDaniel and Bugg. Journal of Applied Research in Memory and Cognition, 1, 61-63.

*Bottiroli, S., Dunlosky, J., *Guerini, K., Cavallini, E., & Hertzog, C. (2010).  Does task affordance moderate age-related deficits in strategy production?  Aging, Neuropsychology and Cognition.( pdf)

Dunlosky, J., Hertzog, C., & Powell-Moman, A. (2005).  The contribution of mediator-based deficiencies to age-related differences in associative learning.  Developmental Psychology, 41, 389-400. pdf

Hertzog, C., & Dunlosky, J. (2004).  Aging, metacognition, and cognitive control.  In B. Ross (Ed.) Psychology of Learning and Motivation. (pp. 215-252).  Elsevier Academic Press:  Sand Diego, CA.

Dunlosky, J., & Hertzog, C. (2001).  Measuring strategy production during associative learning:  The relative utility of concurrent versus retrospective reports.  Memory & Cognition, 29, 247-253.

Dunlosky, J. & Hertzog, C.  (1998).  Aging and deficits in associative memory: What is the role of strategy production?  Psychology and Aging, 13, 597-607. pdf

Dunlosky, J., & Salthouse, T. A. (1996).  A decomposition of age-related differences in multi-trial free recall.  Aging, Neuropsychology, and Cognition, 3, 2-14.

Salthouse, T. A., & Dunlosky, J.  (1995).  Analyses of adult age differences in associative learning.  Zeitschrift Für Psychologie, 203, 351-360.

Memory Intervention Research

*Bailey, H., Dunlosky, J., & Hertzog, C. (2010).  Metacognitive training at home:  Does it improve older adults’ learning?  Gerontology, 56, 414-420.

Serra, M. & Dunlosky, J. (2010). Metacomprehension judgments reflect the belief that diagrams improve learning from text. Memory, 18, 698-711.

Cavallini, E., Dunlosky, J., *Bottiroli, S., Hertzog, C., & Vecchi, T. (2010).  Promoting transfer in memory training for older adults.  Aging Clinical and Experimental Research, 22, 314-323.

Hertzog, C., Dunlosky, J., & Sinclair, S. M. (2010). Episodic feeling-of-knowing resoltion derives from the quality of encoding. Memory & Cognition, 38, 711-784.

Hertzog, C., Sinclair, S. M., & Dunlosky, J. (2010). Age differences in the monitoring of learning: Cross-sectional evidence of spared resolution across the life-span. Developmental Psychology, 46, 939-948.

Pyc, M. A. & Dunlosky, J. (2010). Toward an understanding of student's allocation of study time: Why do they decide to mass or space their practice? Memory and Cognition, 38, 431-440.

Dunlosky, J., Cavallini, E., *Roth, H., McGuire, C., Vecchi, T., & Hertzog, C. (2007). Do self-monitoring interventions improve older adults' learning? Journal of Gerontology: Psychological Sciences, 62, 70-76.

Dunlosky, J., *Kubat-Silman, A., & Hertzog, C. (2003).  Training monitoring skills improves older adults’ self-paced associative learning.  Psychology & Aging, 18, 340-345. pdf

Working Memory Research

Was, C., Dunlosky, J., Bailey, H., & Rawson, K. A. (2012). The unique contributions of the facilitation of procedural memory and working memory to individual differences in intellidence. Acta Psychologica, 3, 425-433.

*Bailey, H., Dunlosky, J., & Kane, M. (2011). Contribution of strategy use to performance on complex and simple span tasks. Memory & Cognition, 39, 447-461.

*Bailey, H., Dunlosky, J., & Hertzog, C. (2009). Does differential strategy use account for age-related deficits in working-memory performance? Psychology & Aging, 24, 82-92. doc

*Bailey, H., Dunlosky, J., & Kane, M. J. (2008). Why does working memory span predict complex cognition? Testing the strategy-affordance hypothesis. Memory & Cognition, 36, 1383-1390. .pdf

Dunlosky, J., & Kane, M. J. (2007).  The contributions of strategy use to working memory span: A comparison of strategy-assessment methods. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology., 60, 1227-1245. pdf

OVERVIEWS, METHODS AND MUSINGS

Tauber, S. K., Dunlosky, J., Rawson, K. A., Rhodes, M. G., & Sotzman, D. M. (in press). General knowledge norms: updated and expanded from the Nelson and Narens (1980) norms. Behavior Research Methods.

Rawson, K. A. & Dunlosky (in press). Retrieval-monitoring-feedback (RMF) technique for producing efficiient and durable learning. To appear in R. Azevedo (Ed.) The International Handbook of Metacognition and Learning Technologies.

Dunlosky, J. & *Ariel, R. ( in press). Self-regulated learning and the allowcation of study time. To appear in B. Ross (Ed), Psychology of Learning and Motivation.

Dunlosky, J., *Bottiroli, S., & *Hartwig, M. (in press). Sins committed in the name of ecological validity. In D. Hacker, J. Dunlosky, & A. Graesser (Eds.).  Handbook of Metacognition in Education.  NY:  Psychology Press. pdf

Dunlosky, J., *Serra, M., & *Baker, J. M. C. (2007).  Metamemory Applied.  In F. Durso et al. (Eds.) Handbook of Applied Cognition. 2nd Edition. (pp. 137-159) NY, NY: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Dunlosky, J. (2004).  Metacognition.  In R. R. Hunt & H. C. Ellis’s textbook, Fundamentals of Cognitive Psychology (7th edition).  NY:  McGraw-Hill College.

Hacker, D., & Dunlosky, J. (2003).  Not all metacognition is created equal.  In D. Sharp & D. Knowlton (Eds.) New Directions in Teaching and Learning Series.

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